Growing apricots in the Urals (Orenburg region)


Contents ✓

  • ✓ Seedling №1
  • ✓ Seedling №2
  • ✓ APRICOTS IN THE URALS AND SIBERIA – GROWTH GUARANTEED

APRICOTS ON THE URALS – CULTIVATION, PLANTING AND CARE

Let’s talk about apricots. As is known, depending on the area of ​​growth, these are ordinary, Manchurian and Siberian species. In the Urals, selection is mainly carried out by growing Manchurian apricots as the most edible. But here in the Orenburg region, apricot forms are widespread. They proved to be relatively resistant to warming during the thaw. And apricots got here through the massive import of seeds from the Volga region, from Ukraine. Even a kind of “apricot paradise” was created – the village of Energetik in the Novoorsky district. It was from here that the apricot went through the steppe areas of the Orenburg region.

But the thought haunted me: are there greater fruits? In local forms they are small – 7-20 g. And it turned out that they are – these are the varieties of Ivan Leontievich Baikalov. He worked with both Manchurian and Siberian apricots in the rather difficult conditions of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. It interested me very much. I wrote a letter to Ivan Leontiewicz asking him to send planting material. In response, I received everything I asked for and the Master’s blessing for working with apricots.

Baikalov introduced me to many subtleties of growing this plant, and without his advice I would not have been able to. For example, if you sow apricot kernels, the heredity seems to have loosened. Many seedlings acquire qualitatively new properties under unusual growing conditions – in particular, greater frost resistance. In autumn I received a Gorny Abakan variety seedling and seeds of a selected form 7-8 from Baikalov. Mountain Abakan landed immediately. But just in case, I made a shelter: I killed 4 pegs around it and covered it with foil.


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apricots in the Urals

Removed bones prior to stratification in a dark, dry place. At the beginning of March, I took them out, soaked them in warm snow water for 3 days. The water was changed. Then he sprinkled it with wet sand and put it on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. According to Baikalov, the stratification process should take 75 days. Of course, the landing time must be adjusted so that the return frosts disappear. The soil should be loose and filled with organic matter, as the roots of the seedlings grow very quickly and should not encounter obstacles during growth. Bones should not be buried, they should be placed on the ground and sprinkled with sand. To keep the sand from blowing away, put a board on top (and then remove it). This is done so that the root neck of the future seedlings is slightly above the soil level.


See also: Apricot in the Moscow region – varieties of planting and care (advice from a science candidate)


It is also very important not to break the tap root when digging the seedlings. It is clearly visible – it is either bright red or pink. After the seedlings have been dug up, they should be immediately lowered into a bucket of water with the roots down (drying the root system is harmful). With the further planting of these seedlings, it is enough to cut off part of the crown to half its length, otherwise the root system will not be able to feed the entire growth.

In the spring, I removed the shelter from Upper Abakan, which was growing enormously, reaching a waist up to 1 m. I did not cover it anymore – this is problematic.

All the bones popped out – it was amazing! By autumn the seedlings had grown to 1 m. It’s good that Ivan Leontiewicz advised me to keep a diary! I don’t even need to refresh my memory – it’s all on paper. The winter of 2-2007 was normal. But spring is coming

The mountain Abakan flourished in the second year of his life. All my relatives and I were fascinated by this spectacle and we looked forward to tasting the fruits that were extraordinary for us. But there were frosts back to 5 °. Knowing this, in the evening I sprinkled all the flowers with warm water. I decided to check if it was true that the water gives off heat when it freezes. When the sun rose on the new day and my flowers started to melt, I was glad that the experiment was successful – the flowers did not turn black. Hurrah! But the next night the frost was again: minus 6 °! I had to spray again. It wasn’t until the following night that a disaster happened: Grandfather Frost decided to test my strength and hit me in the stomach – minus 10 °! I had the fires ready in advance, but it was perfectly calm and the smoke went straight up. Not only the flowers died, but also part of the central guide – it had to be cut out.

apricots in the Urals

But such cataclysms make us think and go on. Until winter 2008-2009. my apricots firmed a little. And these weather vagaries again! The winter was so harsh that I thought about the death of all fruit trees. Judge for yourself: the snow cover was not formed until January 10-11, and earlier in December during the week the temperature dropped to minus 42 °. The earth was in terrible cracks and wrinkles. The soil was frozen to a depth of 1 m! What was my joy when all my apricots bloomed in the spring! Moreover, they calmly withstood minus 3 °. But there was a new problem.

Flowering started very early, but there were no bees. As you know, apricot is a cross-pollinated plant. The seedlings bloomed a little to the side, and in my opinion the pollen from them could not reach the Upper Abakan. We needed bees. Where to get them? Suddenly I heard a buzzing near the felt cherry. And it grew on the other side of my house, and the bees swarming beside it did not notice the apricots. I had to intervene. In desperation, I caught a few bees, stunned by such audacity, into a bag, put them on an apricot, and planted one for each flower.

At first, the bees could not understand where they were. But then they began to crawl lazily among the flowers, watching me from the side. Seeing the awakening in this part of the garden, 4 bumblebees flew in. It just got more fun. But as soon as I took a breath, clouds covered the sky and it began to rain. The bees jumped to the ground, lined up, and entered the hive without even looking at me. The bumblebees were still working hard.

Now I do it differently: elsewhere I cut off a few twigs with undeveloped buds, put them in the water, and hang the bottle on a twig of mountain abakan. There have been no cuts yet.

As a result, 52 apricots began to grow in the Upper Abakan after the operation code-named “Bee”! When I saw that the fruit had fallen, I was really happy

The mountainous Abakan is still alive today. Every year we enjoy the harvest. And I gave the seedlings to the temple. There was also an interesting and informative story. They landed along the path and cleared snow all winter. Where did they drop it? That’s right, apricots. My words and arguments have not been heard. Then I uprooted rotten trees, planted new ones (these were mountain Abakan seedlings) and went to clean the snow all winter. I went for the second winter. When the seedlings bloomed and harvested in the third year, the whole village came to see this miracle and take a selfie. The most interesting thing is that I couldn’t find a single bone in the fall. And again, not knowing how to properly stratify and plant them, they will start digging deep, etc. As a result – what apricots will appear? And they don’t grow here, it’s sad.

The main problem is this. Why clear snow from apricots? Imagine a hypothetical seedling under a thick layer of snow. What happens in spring? During the day the snow melts, at night the water freezes and turns to ice. And if a trunk with sides is also made? Do you think it will be easy for the root collar? During the day it is in the water, and at night it is bound with ice. And so on up to 2 weeks until the snow melts. Such a hapless gardener looks at it and concludes: the apricot is frozen. And it did not freeze, the root neck just bulged!

What to do? Or plant on gentle hills or throw snow away. There is no third option. By the way, for the same reason, conifers burn in the spring, but not from the bright sun, as is still believed. They are evergreen, and as soon as the sun warms up, the sap begins to flow in them. But the roots are not working, they are frozen. And here you need to help the plant – pour a bucket or two of hot water under it. In this case, the surface roots will thaw and start working.

I advise you not to be afraid to grow apricots and look for tips from old masters, almost everyone has books. And special thanks to Ivan Leontiewicz Baikalov for his outstanding works. Though the path to his garden is overgrown, he will forever be remembered by people as the “apricot professor”. And people just don’t give such titles.

Seedling №1

Apricot kernels obtained by moose Seedling no. 0. It is planted on the premises of the Church of the Intercession of the Holy Mother of God. Pokrovka Novosergievsky district of the Orenburg region. Age 8, medium height, disease free. There is no fruiting period. The fruits are medium, weighing 35-45 g. The taste is high, the seeds separate easily. Selected after fruiting for good economic values. A distinctive feature is the pink color of the fruit. Nobody passes, everyone stops! enjoy the fruit.

Seedling №2

Obtained by sowing seeds Seedlings No. 0. It also grows on the territory of the temple. Age 8 years. Medium size, early maturing. Over the years it has not been damaged by frost. He did not suffer from disease. There is no fruiting period. Fruit weight 30-45 g. Selected for its spicy taste – there is a slight tartness. The color of the fruit is orange with a red side.

Ivan Leontievich Baikalov began his first steps in working with apricot breeding in the village of Beltyrsky in 1957. Then he continued working in various places in Khakassia. In 1962 he made the first intentional crossing. Today, the Siberian breeder, Honored Agronomist of Russia, Ivan Leontievich Baikalov from the city of Abakan, is deservedly called “the professor of apricots”. By selection, alone, without payment, with personal enthusiasm, he made a revolution in the cultivation of apricots: for the first time in world practice, a purely southern culture took root in the harshest climatic conditions.

The first apricot varieties he bred – Sibiryak Baikalova, Forny Abakan, Sayansky, East Siberian – are included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of Russia.

Baikalov repeated tirelessly: “The life of apricots in Siberia does not depend on frost, but on knowledge of its biology.”

In February 2022, 8 years after the departure of Ivan Leontiewicz. But its varieties are alive. They bloom and bear fruit to the joy of all of us. Thank you, Ivan Leontiewicz!


Reference by topic: Growing apricots – planting and care: specialist advice (Orenburg region)


APRICOTS IN THE URALS AND SIBERIA – GROWTH GUARANTEED

How to definitely grow an apricot in the Urals and Siberia

© Author: A. Nemytov, winemaker, full member of the MOIP Orenburg region

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