- ✓ CHERRY – PLANTING AND CARE OF YIELD
- ✓ CHERRY VARIETIES – MY REVIEWS AND DESCRIPTION
CHERRY VARIETIES FOR THE VLADIMIR REGION AND THE SECRETS OF CARING FOR THEM
We often hear that our cherries do not bear fruit, because there is a forest around. However, I do not agree with this argument, because our village of Kanabyevo in the Volodymyr Oblast is also located in the forest and I do not complain about the cherry harvest. So what influences its yield? To help understand this problem, we begin to look for the cause.
CHERRY – PLANTING AND CARE OF YIELD
First of all, the choice of variety affects the yield. I prefer partially self-pollinating varieties. Secondly, the yield is always higher in cross-pollination, that is, at least 2, preferably 3, cultivars should grow on the site. Thirdly, because our area belongs to the zone of risk farming, and in winter there are often frosts up to 35-39 °, the varieties must be very winter-hardy. In spring, temperature changes rapidly during the day and night, with the result that the fruit buds partially die. Therefore, it is imperative to choose frost-resistant or late-flowering varieties to avoid periods of recurring cold. Fourth, the acidity of the soil, which should be closer to neutral, is also very important for cherries. To do this, I definitely throw 0 buckets of dolomite flour into the planting pit, which not only neutralizes the soil, but also serves as an excellent fertilizer. I also bring at least 5 liters of ash rich in many trace elements.
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We have land at the construction site in various places with an uneven structure. Cherry gives good results in light, fertile soils with sufficient moisture. So, on heavy clay soil, I definitely add a bucket of sand to the hole for loosening, and on a sandy one, on the contrary, a bucket of clay, so that after watering or rains, the moisture necessary for the good development of the root system that nourishes the plant remains longer.
However, in low and humid soils with a close presence of groundwater, good cherry harvests cannot be expected, it is necessary to perform drainage, plant trees on a mound (e.g. ridge) so that excess moisture (spring water) from the trunks falls within the boundaries.
The site for cherry trees should be well lit by the sun and preferably sheltered from the cold northeast winds.
I plant cherries at a distance of 2 m to 5 m depending on the height of the selected variety. In a planting well with a diameter of 4 cm and a depth of 50 cm, I always put only humus and in no case fresh manure. Also, be sure to put 80 cups of superphosphate and 2 cups of potassium sulfate in it. I do not pamper cherries with nitrogen fertilizers, only once after flowering I give foliar top dressing on a leaf with a solution of dung and herbal infusion in a ratio of 1: 2. Under mature trees in the crown radius, I sprinkle 3 buckets of dolomite flour every 10 years, and then loosen or mulch the soil. In early spring, at a temperature of 1 °, I spray the garden with a 5% solution of Bordeaux mixture for disease prevention, and then before and after flowering with a preparation based on malathion (malathion) from harmful insects. I perform all treatments late in the evening in order not to kill beneficial insects and according to the instructions.
If the cherry blossoms when the cold comes back, I sprinkle water on the trees late in the evening. The ice formed from the cold prevents the flowers from freezing.
In the summer, I follow the watering. To avoid the uncovering of the crown in August-September, I pinch twigs of one-year growth 25-40 cm long, which also positively affects the increase in yield. At the turn of September and October, I perform pre-winter irrigation of cherries (without fertilizers).
See also: Cherries and problems – disease, self-fertility, fruiting, and chopping
CHERRY VARIETIES – MY REVIEWS AND DESCRIPTION
And now I want to briefly tell you about the varieties that our family liked the most. I make strains on the seedlings of Vladimirskaya and Shub Inka cherries, because these varieties are very winter-hardy and resistant to podoprevanie. Shubinka is a medium-sized tree with a panicle-shaped crown, it bears fruit every year since 1996, with almost no shoots. The yield is good, only the fruits are small and sour, but the compotes are excellent. For ten years, she started suffering from Moniliosis and coccicosis, so the trees had to be transplanted, some of them turned into a tree garden.
In 2003, she acquired a semi-self-fertile Molodezhnaya variety, medium late ripening, which annually gives a good harvest of large, juicy and sweet burgundy fruits. Highly winter-hardy variety, resistant to diseases. The tree is short. We only eat fresh fruit.
In 2012, I bought Novell seedlings (VNI ISPK, Orel), and the next year we tasted large, dark cherry fruits. Their flesh is juicy, crumbly, without tartness, and an excellent dessert taste. Early maturing variety, very winter-hardy, partially self-pollinating, disease resistant and fertile. The tree is vigorous, I do autumn pinching of the branches every year.
Malinovka (VSTISP, Moscow), 2015 An average tree with a dense crown began to bear fruit in the third year. The variety is very winter-hardy, moderately fertile, resistant to diseases. The fruit is large, dark red, juicy, with a good sweet and sour taste.
Rusinka (2003), VSTISP selection, Moscow. The tree is weak, it gives a good harvest every year. The fruit is dark red, medium-sized, with a pleasant taste. Late-maturing variety, highly winter-hardy, partially self-fertile.
Troitskaya (YUNIIPOK, Chelyabinsk), 2011 Winter-hardy, early growing, large, red fruit, good taste, but suffering from moniliosis, I instilled another variety.
Turgenevka (VNIISPK, Oryol), 2012. Early growing and partially self-pollinating variety, satisfied with the first fruits in the third year. Very winter-hardy, disease-resistant, fruitful. The berries are large, maroon, with a good sweet and sour taste.
Pamyati Vavilov cultivar (VNIIGiSPR named after IV Michurin, Michurinsk), 2014. Highly winter-hardy, disease-resistant, high-yielding. The tree is medium-sized, medium-sized, dark red and burgundy fruit, juicy, with an excellent dessert taste.
Since 2014, cherry varieties Zhukovskaya, Rovesnitsa, Meteor, Garland, Nadezhda have been tested. While winter hardiness fails.
There are also ducks in my garden (cherry and cherry cross).
Spartan (2014). I was vaccinated on Szubinka, the first fruits were obtained in the third year. The variety is very winter-hardy, fruitful, resistant to diseases, with medium vigor. The fruit is dark red, large, medium-ripening. The flesh is very juicy, crispy, with a good sweet and sour taste, with a strong aroma of cherries.
Ivanovna (2016). Vaccinations in the crown showed the first fruits in the third year. Winter-resistant, productive, disease-resistant variety. The fruit is large, dark red, ripening in early July. The flesh is crisp, aromatic, with a good sweet and sour taste.
Single fruits were shown by the Kormilitsa, Khodosa, Fesanna varieties (vaccinations 2016).
Of course, there are cherries in my garden. In 2001, at the All-Russian Exhibition Center in Moscow, I had the opportunity to buy Fatezh cherries (VSTISP, Moscow). Of course, I immediately vaccinated myself: I cut off the seedlings from the seedling and inoculated them on the seedlings of Vladimir’s cherries. The variety turned out to be highly winter-hardy, resistant to diseases. The tree began to bear fruit in the fourth year. Fruiting intermittently, most likely due to freezing of fruit buds. The fruit is large, beautiful, yellow with a blush, perfect dessert taste.
We are very pleased with the Leningradskaya Black Cherry (2003) variety, bred at the VIR Pavlovsk Experimental Station. I also grafted seedlings on Vladimir’s cherry seedlings. The variety turned out to be quite winter-hardy, resistant to diseases. During severe frosts, the places where the skeletal branches left the trunk suffered. But it is easy to remove. In late fall (November), I started to cover these areas with a creamy clay solution and repeat the treatment in the spring where I found cracks. As a result, the clasterosporium disease completely disappeared. The trees began to bear fruit in the 3rd or 4th year. The fruit is very large, almost black, juicy, with an excellent dessert taste.
Iput (All-Russian Research Institute of Lupine, Bryansk), 2001. The variety is highly winter-hardy, disease-resistant, fertile, partially self-fertile (annual fruiting). The fruit is large, from burgundy to black, very good sweet and sour taste.
We are very pleased with the Revna variety (All-Russian Lupine Research Institute, Bryansk), 2014. Large, maroon fruit, excellent dessert taste, medium late ripening. Medium-sized, very winter-hardy, it began to bear fruit in the fourth year. Variety resistant to diseases, highly fertile. Every year I used to pinch the annual branches in the fall to reduce the compactness of the crown and speed up fruiting.
Cultivar Orlovskaya Yantarnaya (2012) showed good winter hardiness. The tree is weak, it began to bear fruit in the fifth year. The berries are yellowish-amber in color with a pleasant dessert flavor.
Last year, we tried the Bryanochka, Veda, Rechitsa varieties.
And of course, in the subject of cherries and cherries, one cannot but mention the birds. Over the past five years, flocks of birds have started to fly out of the forest and deal with the harvest in no time. Some peck meat, others on the contrary – some bones, and the meat lies on the ground. By far, the most reliable protection is to shelter plants with lutrasil from the moment the fruit begins to ripen. In advance, the birds can clearly see the ripe fruit, and if they try, do not expect good.
See also: Duke (chereshnevishnia) and cherry – grows in the Vladimir region
© Author: V. OKHOTNIKOVA Vladimir Region
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